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Category: Blog

Prostate Cancer

What is the prostate?

The prostate is an exocrine gland that makes up part of the male reproductive system. It is situated directly below the bladder, but in front of the rectum with the urethra running through the prostate. By exocrine gland, I mean it is a gland whose secretions ultimately end up outside of the body (sweat glands are exocrine glands). The prostate produces the protective fluid in which a male’s semen travels and when a male climaxes, contractions force the prostate to push that fluid into the urethra to eventually leave the body.

At only the size of a walnut, the prostate causes a lot of problems if left unchecked. It is estimated that 80% of men who live to age 80 will develop prostate cancer at some point during their life. There has even been a study conducted which claims many men who die simply of “old age” actually have prostate cancer, but because of the slow-growing nature of the disease, did not know it at the time of death. At this frequency, all men should be not only aware of their prostate and any bodily changes, but be receiving annual check ups from a doctor.

Potential Risk Factors:

Black American men are 1.5 times more likely to develop prostate cancer than their white peers, and a recent study points to socio-economic factors as a possible explanation for the racial disparity. It is not entirely clear what causes prostate cancer, but as men grow older they are more likely to develop cancer causing agents—the diets we participate in are major factors in the speed at which these agents grow. Since diet is largely determined by economic status and access to healthy food sources in any given neighborhood, black men are more likely to develop prostate cancer and at a younger age. They are recommended to begin cancer screening at the age of 40 whereas white men are recommended to begin at age 50.

Beyond the foods we eat, prostate cancer can largely be predicted by genetics. If someone in your family has had prostate cancer, then you are that much more likely to develop it and should be extra-cautious. Also, a sedentary lifestyle can be a major factor in the development of cancer forming cells. We know that diet and exercise are a good way to reduce the risk of most cancers, but even so, prostate cancer still develops in otherwise healthy men. According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer risk could be increased when cells begin to divide into new cells more rapidly. The more quickly prostate cells divide, the more chances there are for DNA mutations to occur since every time a cell is divided it must copy the existing DNA and the process isn’t always perfect. Research is becoming more sophisticated on the causes of sped-up cell division and one answer may be high levels of androgens (testosterone) or inflammation of the prostate leading to increased cell production. A study conducted by the University of Michigan has pointed toward a link between gonorrhea and prostate cancer later on. This is similar to how researchers believe the inflammation caused by HPV can lead to cervical cancer in women. As it is hard to predict the rate at which our cells are multiplying, it is beneficial to keep a healthy diet, an active lifestyle, and of course, regular check-ups with your physician.

By Prime Medical Alert →

Title VII of The 1964 Civil Rights Act

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Question: What it Does Title VII Do?

Answer: Prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex and national origin.
An Employer under Title VII is:

  • a person engaged in an industry affecting commerce
  • employs fifteen (15) or more employees for each working day in each of twenty or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, and any agent of such a person

Question: What damages are available under Title VII?

Answer: Back Pay – Lost wages
Front Pay – Future wage losses


Compensatory Damages – Pay the victimized employee’s for out-of-pocket expenses caused by the discrimination (such as costs associated with a job search or medical expenses) and compensate them for any emotional harm suffered (such as mental anguish, inconvenience, or loss of enjoyment of life).

Punitive damages – May be awarded to punish an employer who has committed an especially malicious or reckless act of discrimination.

Limits – Under Title VII limits compensatory and punitive damage awards based on the number of employees the employer had during the “current or preceding calendar year.” The maximum total amount of compensatory and punitive damages that may be awarded to the plaintiff are dependent upon the number of employees as shown below.

Number of Employees Damage Cap
015-100 employees $050,000
101-200 employees $100,000
201-500 employees $200,000
500 plus employees $300,000


Federal cases have interpreted “current or preceding calendar year” as meaning the year in which the discriminatory acts took place.

Smart Ways to Prepare for the Future

  • Put your wishes in writing. If you have saved little treasures through life which are important to you and you want to make sure they get to the right hands when you die, put it in writing. The items you have saved may be things like books, Bibles, rugs, furniture, clothing, letters, photographs, appliances and jewelry. Write out a letter with instructions on who is to receive what and where the items are located.
  • Make a Will. Identify who is to receive what from the things you have accumulated in life. A lawyer should be consulted to help if that is possible.
  • Life Insurance should be left to intended beneficiaries.
  • Prepare a durable power of attorney. Name someone you trust to look after your assets in case you are disabled.
  • Prepare a release of information form for your doctor. Permit your doctor to share your privileged medical information with the persons you identify.
  • Prepare an Advanced Directive. Allow medical decisions to be made by someone you trust, on your behalf, in the event you are unable to communicate.
  • Set up a Trust and avoid Probate. If you are able to hire an attorney and prepare a trust, you can make it much easier on those you love by avoiding the costs of a probate and privately passing the title to your assets to those you identify. (This is usually a “Best Practice” in most estate planning.)

Time to Do Estate Planning

  • Baby Boomers do not have estate plans in place.
  • You do not have to have $5.0 million to justify using an estate plan.
  • Most 65 year olds do not have basic wills or trusts in place.
  • Most Americans do not think they make enough to warrant estate planning.
  • 5 million baby boomers will turn 65 each year for the next 15 years.
  • Focus on essentials but get a basic estate plan in place.
  • 10,000 baby boomers born between 1946 and 1964 will begin turning 65 each day for the next two decades.
  • It is estimated that 62% of all US Companies will be seeking ways to monetize within the next 5 or 6 years transferring approximately $15 trillion dollars.
  • Tax burdens are 20% on capital gains, 5.4% at the state level and another 3.8% healthcare tax meaning 29.2%

Son Left Out of Trust

Son Left Out of an Oklahoma Trust Could Not Bring Probate Action to Receive a Foreced Share From His Father’s Estate

In a recent case, the Oklahoma Supreme Court found that Oklahoma’s pretermitted heir statute did “not” extend to a revocable inter vivos trust. In the case, decedent left no will having previously placed everything in a trust. As a result, his alleged son filed a probate action seeking what is tantamount to a share of decedent’s Trust as a pretermitted heir.

The Oklahoma Supreme Court found that Oklahoma’s pretermitted heir statute does “not” limit a testator’s power to dispose of his property by trust and insures no minimum statutory share like a spouse’s forced heir share under 84 O.S. § 44.

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Woska Law Firm, PLLC

A. Daniel Woska
200 N. Broadway #262
Edmond, OK 73083

Phone: (405) 657-2271
Fax: (405) 348-4523
Email: awoska@woskalawfirm.com

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